HWM FACILITY >> 8.Facility Overview


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FACILITY OVERVIEW

TRANSPORTATION FLEET

The transport is required for the transport of wastes from waste generating member units to the facility. The vehicles specially designed for the safe and leakage proof transport of hazardous waste, as per the CPCB Guidelines and in line with international practice are in use for the transport of hazardous wastes in the state of Haryana.

 

The vehicles are fitted with Online Communication System, First Aid Facility, Spill Collection System, etc. The vehicles will be labeled as per the requirements.

 

Packaging of wastes, primarily depend upon the physical and chemical characteristics of wastes. The liquid hazardous wastes packed in suitable leak-proof MS and/or HDPE drums (standard for chemical storage) whereas solid hazardous wastes packed in suitable bags are accepted for transportation. The tankers with proper corrosion proof lining are proposed for the bulk transfer of liquid wastes. In case of bulk transfer of semi liquid and/or viscous liquid, heating arrangements with statistical control are — required to be fitted on the tankers. For bulk and frequent transport of solid wastes (e.g. CETP in the nearby industrial areas), the dumper placers of requisite capacity are used. TREM card system as provided in the Hazardous Waste Rules, providing information on emergency management is followed in strict compliance. The MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheet) of chemical constituents of wastes are used for deciding actions in case of emergency. The frequent unplanned mock drills are carried out for assessing and improving the effectiveness of system.

 

Communication systems are provided to drivers of transport vehicles carrying hazardous wastes. The driver shall be well equipped to contact TSDF and the waste generator, while transport.

At Present the fleet includes following vehicles

        3 MT capacity                             - 3 Nos.

        9 MT capacity                             - 6 Nos.

        16 MT capacity                           - 1 No.

pcv000093f0_bgr936b2720.jpg

Fig: Transportation Facility

 

PRETREATMENTS OR PHYSICO CHEMICAL TREATMENT OF WASTES

The wastes may require some pretreatment even before the actual treatment. There are so many types of pretreatment options normally adopted. They are shown in the diagram below. The commonly used pretreatments in case of Haryana are:

·         Dewatering

·         Neutralization

·         Reduction of wastes

·         Oxidation of Wastes

 

TREATMENT FACILITY

HAZARDOUS WASTES INCINERATION FACILITY

The organic wastes are required to be incinerated and the incineration ash is then required to be disposed off in Secured Landfill Disposal cell directly or after Solidification and Stabilization.

 

Incineration is basically a controlled combustion of waste at very high temperature followed by the cleaning and cooling of flue gases. Various types of wastes are fed to the incineration chamber, where the same is burnt at a temperature of about 900-1000°C in the presence of excess oxygen. The gases from the chamber is first passed through a secondary chamber where the temperature of gases are elevated to 1200°C and then passed through the flue gas cleaning system for removal of harmful fine solids and harmful gases from the flue gases before final discharge into the atmosphere. The incineration ash is removed from furnaces and sent for the further treatment and disposal.

 

The typical process flow diagram of an incineration facility is shown in following figure:

 

Quencher

 

Secondary Combustion

Chamber (1200 °C)

 

Primary Rotary Kiln

(800 °C)

 

Solid, Semi Solid

& Liquid Waste Charging System

 

The typical process flow diagram of an incineration facility is shown in following figure:

                                                                                       

 

           
   
     
 
 
 
 

 

 

 


Fig: Typical Incineration Process Flow Diagram

 

pcv000093f0_bgr936b2741.jpg

Fig: Rotary kiln twin chambered Incineration Facility

The incineration system at Pali is Rotary kiln, twin chambered type in order to handle wastes in various physical forms. The control systems include the dust collection system, heat recovery system and gas cleaning systems. There are provisions for charging solid, semi-solid and liquid wastes of broader viscosity range. The proposed incineration will maintain 1200°C temperature in secondary furnace and meets latest CPCB norms with respect to emission norms. The typical incineration plant will comprise of following sections:

*      Waste receiving and storing area

*      Wastes preparation and feeding section

*      Incineration section  

*      Heat recovery section and pollution control devices

*      Management of residues generated during incineration

 

STABILIZATION AND SOLIDIFICATION OF HAZARDOUS WASTES

The stabilization and solidification of the hazardous wastes is done to reduce the mobility and toxicity of waste, improve the handling characteristics of liquid containing wastes, and generally prepare the waste for disposal into landfills. The cement based and Pozzolanic Stabilisation/ Solidification treatment process is required for the following types of wastes, when the concentration of toxic constituent is above the limit prescribed limit for direct disposal.

·         Heavy metal bearing wastes

·         Asbestos bearing wastes

·         Glass wool

·         Sulfur bearing wastes

The concentration limits are given in waste management decision matrix in figure and also given in the table below. The same is in line with the CPCB guidelines for the direct disposal of Wastes into Secured Landfill Facility.

Criteria for disposal of Heavy Metal Waste in to Secured Land Fill

SL. NO.

PARAMETER

CONCENTRATION LIMIT

1

As

Less than 1 ppm

2

Cd

Less than 0.2 ppm

3

Pb

Less than 2 ppm

4

Cu

Less than 10 ppm

5

Zn

Less than 50 ppm

6

Hg

Less than 0.1 ppm

7

Chrome +6

Less than 0.5 ppm

 

 

The Solidification and Stabilization System comprise of silos for storage of binders and wastes, mixing units, stabilizing units and material handling equipments. The process flow diagram is as indicated schematically in the following figure:

 

 

 

 


 

S/S Mass

 

Waste

Mixing

 

 

                   Grinding        

                       

After 24 Hour Curing for 7, 14, 21 or 28 Days

 

 

 

 
 
 

 


                                                                     UCS/TCLP

 

SECURED LANDFILL DISPOSAL FACILITY

The wastes are either disposed off directly into the landfill and/or after the treatment like Solidification & Stabilization and Incineration. The decision on whether to treat or directly dispose off are taken as per the criteria mentioned in the CPCB guideline "Criteria for Hazardous Waste Landfills"


pcv000093f0_bgr936b273c.jpgpcv000093f0_bgr936b2736.jpg                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Fig: Typical Secured Landfill Cell

The secured landfill cell comprises of the following components.

·         Bottom Liner System

·         Side Liner System

·         Top Liner system (placed at the time of closure)

·         Leachate Sump for Collection and Removal of Leachate

·         Monitoring Wells

 

Bottom Liner System 

The Double Composite Liner System suggested in CPCB guidelines is adopted. The same is explained in figure given below.

Fig: Typical Bottom Liner System

 

Table: Quality of HDPE liners

SR. NO.

PARAMETERS

AS PER CPCB REQUIREMENT

USED IN SLF

1.

Tensile Strength at Yield

> 18 KN/m

26 KN/m

2.

Tensile Strength at Break

> 30 KN/m

41 KN/m

3.

Tear Resistance

> 150 N

200 N

4.

Puncture Resistance

> 250 N

480 N

 

The wastes are placed as per the SLF operation and maintenance plan on the bottom Liner system. The daily, weekly and monthly cover systems with compacted soil of desired thickness are regularly provided over the waste layers.

 

Top Liner System

The Top liner system from bottom to top is as shown in the figure given below:

Fig: Typical Top Liner System

 

 

 

Side Liner System

Side liner will be single composite liner system suggested in CPCB guidelines is adopted. The same is given in figure below.

Fig: Typical Side Liner System

Leachate Sump 

The leachate sumps of RCC made of required size and depth based on the estimated leachate generation and RL of leachate collection layer. The leachates so collected are transferred by pumping to the leachate treatment plant.

 

Monitoring Wells 

Six number of monitoring wells per cell i.e. 3 in the upstream and 3 in the downstream of ground water flow direction covering 3 ground water strata are provided. The ground water quality is monitored in 3 ground water strata once in 3 months, as per the CPCB guidelines.

 

HAZARDOUS WASTE ANALYTICAL AND R & D FACILITY (ENVIRONMENTAL LABORATORY)

The laboratories comprise of office area, the sample storage area, the wet analysis area, the dry analysis area and general stores. The wet analysis and sample storage area is provided with adequate ventilation and exhaust system as well as fire fighting and emergency exits systems. The dry analysis area is air conditioned to take care of instruments. The gas cylinders are stored at the alienated place outside the laboratory. The gas is available through pipelines at required places in the laboratory. The prime function of the laboratory is:

·         To sample and analyze the wastes for establishing and reevaluating finger prints and establishing the treatment and disposal options.

·         To sample and analyze the waste shipment for quick checks

·         To sample and analyze the ground water, surface water, ambient air and flue gas samples.

·         To sample and analyze the Leachate before and after treatment.

·         To sample and analyze the wheel wash

·         To sample and analyze surface run off from the TSDF

·         To check the quality of liners and materials

·         To carry out the waste treatability

·         To sample and analyze the residues after treatment.

 

The laboratory comprise of following major instruments.

   1.                Digital Analytical Balance

   2.                TOC Analyzer with SSM (Solid Sample Module)

   3.                AOX Analyzer

   4.                Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) With Graphite Furnace

   5.                Extractors (TCLP) For Volatile and Non Volatile Compounds

   6.                Bomb Calorimeter

   7.                Hot Air Oven

   8.                Muffle Furnace

   9.                Ph Meter

10.                Sampling Devices

11.                Toxicity Bio Assay Test

12.                UV-Visible Spectrophotometer

13.                Ion Meter with Electrodes

14.                Flash Point, Fire Point Apparatus

15.                TSS Filtration Kit

16.                Water Purification Kit

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SUPPORTING INFRASTRUCTURE

The ICHWTSDF comprises of following supporting infrastructure for the effective management of the hazardous waste at the facility.

v  Computerized Weigh Bridge

v  Vehicle Cleaning (Wheel Wash) Facility

v  Intermediate Storage Facility

v  Leach ate Treatment Facility

v  Administration building comprising of Office and Training Centre

v  Computerized Hazardous Waste Tracking System

v  Green Belt

v  Vehicle Parking facility

v  Wastewater Treatment Plant

v  Workshop

v  Security Cabin

v  Boundary Wall and Main Gate

v  Network of Approach Roads

v  Surface Water Drainage System

v  Wastes handling and compacting vehicles (inside) and many more supporting facilities